Applying Project Zero’s Artful Thinking Routines to Visual Images from the Library

Applying Project Zero’s Artful Thinking Routines to Visual Images from the Library


>>Hello everyone. This is Kathy McGuigan from
the Library of Congress. I want to thank you for joining us this
afternoon for our very special session on “Artful Thinking” from
Project Zero and linking it to visual images from the Library of Congress. We have with us Susan Santoli. She is the Director of the Secondary
Social Studies Education Program at the University of South Alabama. She teaches social studies
methods for secondary undergraduate and graduate social studies
majors, as well as undergraduate and graduate courses across all majors. She is a recipient of the “Teaching with
Primary Sources” grant which focused on training of all entry education and
secondary social studies students to use primary sources from
the Library of Congress. She is co-editor of a book chapter on visual
literacy, and has numerous journal articles and presentations on integrating
primary sources. Our associate Professor, Paige Vitulli
is the Director for the graduate P to 12 Art Education program at
the University of South Alabama. She teaches arts education
for the early childhood and early elementary special education K six
programs and directs a visual arts component of the U.S.A Arts in education
professional development grant, as well as the newly awarded summer SEAM grants. Paige also teaches instructional design online
classes for the college’s graduate programs. Her passions include; family,
art, traveling, photography, technology, gardening, hyaking, and cooking. So, I want to thank our presenter’s
and I want to thank our participants. I know that my mic was hot just a few minutes
ago, and I want to thank you for your patience. We have a great program lined up for you, and I’m going to turn things
over to Susan and Paige.>>Thank you so much Kathleen. This is actually Susan talking right now. We are welcoming you from Mobile,
Alabama, and we’re excited to be with you, and to see how many different grade levels and different geographic areas
our participants are coming from. Tonight, we want to share some activities with
you based on the Library of Congress resources, that you can use with artful thinking
strategies; observing and describing; investigating and questioning; exploring perspectives/points
of view; and making connections. Some will be activities that you can do very
quickly, and then expand should you have time to do that, and others will take
a little bit longer to implement. We’ve been introduced to you, but we’ve
included a little more information here as well, as well as our email addresses. We feel like we’re great collaborators, as we
bring different perspectives to activities. Paige looks at things from
an artistic perspective, and I use a social scientist perspective. So, we feel like we have a really good blend.>>Hi. This is Paige Vitulli, and I’m so
excited to speak today, and to share these ideas with you, and get feedback from all
of you all over the United States. I want to start with just
thinking about visual literacy, and what visual literacy is,
especially what it includes. Basically, I like to remember that when
we think about visual literacy strategies, I think about Bloom’s Taxonomy, and it
includes all of the levels of blooms. And, visual literacy products include,
but are not limited to; photographs, illustrations, maps, diagrams, ads. The works of art can be two
dimensional and three dimensional. They can be moving, and it can be still media. And, a very visually literate learner will take
in to consideration things like the context, the culture, ethics, aesthetics,
and technical components.>>I asked my pre-service teachers how many of them could read music, and
several raised their hands. We discussed how the word read is used here,
and in other ways when we use the word reading. Reading a knitting a pattern,
reading graphs, or charts, and how reading in these cases doesn’t mean
text, but it definitely refers to a literacy. So, when asking our students to analyze
images, we have to guide them in developing that visual literacy just like
we would in textual literacy.>>So, what we’re going to share with you
today, the thoughts, the strategies come from Project Zero, and we think about not
only in and through the arts just as our, the researched activities
that Project Zero advocate. There are many research initiatives there. Multiple intelligences. Things that can be learned. There’s a good “at play” project. There’s learning as a consequence of
thinking, and making learning visible. So, one thing to think about
that Project zero emphasizes is, how do we know students are learning, and what types of learning is much
relevant to our many different students. Specifically, Susan and I
look at artful thinking. It’s one of the several programs at
Project Zero, and what we’re talking about today is all linked by the theme
at artful thinking, visible thinking. One of the several projects visible thinking
has us look at the artful thinking pallet with the many thinking dispositions. We’re going to share four of the six with
you, and talk about the different examples that we use and activities that we use as well. The goal of this artful thinking program is to
help the students develop thinking dispositions that support, again thoughtful learning. So, let’s move to the four that
we’re going to talk about today. Observe and describe. Question and investigate. Explore viewpoints. Compare and connect. I want to note, too, that these visual
thinking dispositions are not necessarily in the hierarchy that they
look like in this list. So, we’re going to progress through these
in this order, but this does not need to be strictly followed in your activities. The pallet is [inaudible] and it just as a
paint pallet, it provides you with many colors, or in this case, thinking dispositions or
strategies that you can choose that are relevant to your goals and to your objectives. Okay, we’re going to start with observing. So, as we think about observing, it is sensing. And, we want to start with observing
and not using words right away. The ability to observe without evaluating. Using observation without evaluating is
a really effective way to communicate. So, we work to encourage our
students to experience sense. They can use their senses like seeing,
you can think about what you might hear, what you might smell, what you might taste,
but experience this without the filters, and subjective perception is emphasized. The next part of observe
and describe is describing. So, this is where you’re going to use
your words to represent what you observe. So, we can relate this to basic scientific
observation, making observations, of course, is a core skill of scientist’s. So, we receive the information,
again, through our senses. When we think about the formal analysis of art, I ask my art students to
look at the elements of art. So, when you describe, one thing to look for
which you’re going to be doing in just a minute, is to look for those seven elements. Look at the lines. Look at the shapes. Look at the forms, the space, the
color, the value, and the texture. Also, of course, look at the subject matter. You may see people, animals, landforms, things
that are man-made, things that are natural. Now, this is where we want
you to start observing. We have provided an image, and in
this image, take a minute to observe. Use your sense of sight, and
think about what you see. We’d like for you to share your
thoughts and type your observations. So, you can start describing what you
see in this visual representation. Make note of the features. Look at the subject matter. Look at the elements of art. I see smoke. Paul sees that they’re sharing food.>>Or, burning eyes, that’s
a good one [laughter].>>Terry sees bread. Bridgett sees an ocean. Great observations. Keep describing. Keep looking. The act of sharing, Jennifer’s. Lee sees Native people sitting. Oh, Paul indicates that some are well-dressed. Ada sees a man with a gun. I like the Liam counted eight men, two women. Oh, Paul’s already getting to the questions. Is there a Minister in the black, left? One thing that I focused on when I asked
my students to observe and to describe which is very difficult for us to do,
is to not jump to in [inaudible] yet, to really just observe and describe
what you see in the picture. A man with a beard. Lots of hands. So, I’m going to ask you to think about
some questions as you continue to observe and describe, and read each other’s responses. Did you observe and describe features? Did you observe and describe similarities? And, differences? Did you observe and describe the subject matter? Also, are you looking at the elements of art? Are you looking at the lines,
and the colors, and the shapes? I see Samantha is already looking at
a variety of colors in the clothing. Of course, having an image that’s
not online makes that easier to see. These are just some of the questions that I just
posed as you were participating, and still are, in this first level of the activity.>>I think it’s very hard too, when you have
some background knowledge about an image not to launch past describing and go
right in to deferring, inferring, and so I think that that’s a
difficult thing for us to do, and sometimes for students to do as well.>>Absolutely. So, some variations of this activity as
you continue to observe and describe, I’m having so much fun reading this. Sarah, I like your question;
Is she handing out pancakes? But, some variations include; filtering or
focusing on a specific part of the image. So, very often Susan and
I will start with one part of the image and not share the entire image. And, for, especially for our young students
that makes it not so overwhelming to see so much visually, and they
can just focus on a part. They can also look at the whole thing
and then we can focus on the parts. So, we can part to whole, or
whole to part with this strategy. So, you can begin with that very
zoomed in part, and ask the learners to visually describe what they see, and then
you can add more visual information to the task. This elaboration game requires you to ask
one student to describe what they see in part of the image, and then progress to the next. Additionally, the game can help student’s use
more sophisticated descriptive vocabulary, because they’re building on each other. The collaboration and the building on ideas
increases that community, and that teamwork, and it models the power of a group effort.>>I don’t know why, but when I do this
activity I really like going from part to whole, and reviewing a little bit at a time,
and then having the students actually add to their observations as we widen.>>These are some pictures from a
classroom, and this is another way that I facilitate this strategy of observing
and describing in the art classroom. I use a set of laminated
posters that I’ve collected over the years, and we use post-it notes. I equip my students with a
pen and a stack of post-its. I display about 10 to 30 posters of
various works of art, sometimes on tables, sometimes we display them on the walls, and
the students are instructed to think of a word or a phrase to describe and
stick to each poster. They must respond to each work
of art without duplication. So, they cannot duplicate their own words, or the words of their classmates
that are already on the posters. They walk around, and they’re
allowed to talk if they talk about their perceptions and
descriptions of the artwork. This always generates many conversations,
and initial reactions to a number of works, usually which are new to my students. It includes vocabulary, they share their
multiple perceptions, and their descriptions. Susan and I have even done this at a
visual literacy workshop with people from all over the world in Ireland. And, these are just some more ideas about
the describe it, post-it activity that is so successful with students and having
them look and just observe and describe. As you’ll see in artful thinking at Project
Zero, very similar activities like colors, lines, shapes, and looking at the
elements of art are advocated. Looking 10 by two process is a great process
where you at an image quietly for 30 seconds, list 10 words or phrases, so you’re
brainstorming, and then repeat. We also want to think about how we can do
this using all the fabulous technology tools. As I talk about voice thread and padlet briefly, I’d love for you to add what technology
resources that you might use on the chat. Because, I know there’s so many out there. It’s hard to keep up with all the new tools. But, a variation is to use voice
thread which is one of my favorites. It’s an online tool to share images, and
participate in the thinking strategies. You use your voice, you can
use video, you can use text, and a community of people can
respond in multiple modes. Padlet is another way to create
and collaborate in the world. It’s used Internationally. It’s user friendly, and intuitive, and
it works with sight, sound, and touch. It’s simple, and it’s linking
really enhances collaboration. So, please keep adding to the chat any other
resources that you think would be useful for us to use with these strategies. Okay, we’re going to move to the next strategy. So, after the strategy of observe and describe,
we’re going to move to question and investigate. As I think about questioning, the questions
that I pose are teacher constructed. But, I like to start with
student constructed questions. So, just yesterday, I did this in class, I shared with a student Salvador Dolly’s
persistence of memory, and if you’re familiar with that work of art, you
can just imagine what kind of questions the students had for the artist. So, I shared that work and my initial question
which is a question that want them to come up with is; if the artist or the
photographer were in the room, what questions would you ask him? Teacher constructed questions, of course, help
us to scaffold their understanding and learning. Many times, the students, of course, don’t
know what they don’t know, and we want to guide that with a teacher constructed questions. And, the investigate part of that is how you
going to find the answers to your questions? The student generated, and the
teacher generated questions. So, we investigate or carry out a
systematic inquiry to discover that. That is our research. So, let’s get back to our image, and let’s
imagine that the artist is in the room. What questions would you ask the
artist about this visual image? So, please type your questions on the chat. And, I know that some of you have already done
that in the previous observe and describe.>>Oh, Sarah, we love wordle. That’s a whole nother presentation. We love wordle for so many reasons,
and use it for so many things.>>I like Patty’s question. Why did you choose purple for the dress? Ah, good question for an artist. Were you actually there to observe that? Very good question. Why are the Native Americans seated?>>And, why was it created. That’s always an important thing as well. In fact, each Fall I do some activities dealing
with Thanksgiving, and I ask the students to compare this to primary sources
or other artistic representations of the First Thanksgiving, and we always
look at the date that something was created and try to discuss how that might
have influenced the content. I think it certainly does here.>>I think Karen’s questions
is always important. When did you paint this, and
that’s getting back in the date? Right. Oh, I like Clarissia’s. Why is there no eye contact
between the people in the scene? Interesting, if you look at the line of vision. And, what I like about having the students
generate questions, it causes us to go back and look at the image with more detail. And, of course, you can do this using
the technology, using white boards, using the post-it notes, high-tech or
low-tech, and everything in between. Great, keep adding those questions, because I
look forward to going back and reviewing those. The third strategy that we’re going
to consider is, exploring viewpoints. So, as we explore viewpoints,
of course this is going to require some analysis,
some higher-level thinking. Asking, what, where, when, and why. It’s a great place to add more visual images. This is where you can add more primary
documents that are related, more artifacts, and as you might imagine, giving some
background knowledge which we have, there are multiple versions and images
depicting similar events, such as this one. Different people have different viewpoints
based on their knowledge, or lack of knowledge, and based on their experiences,
and then, artistic vision, and that’s a whole lesson upon itself in my
book, but that’s a great thing to consider as we explore multiple viewpoints. So, once again, as you’re looking at
this image we can revisit this painting and consider multiple viewpoints. We could take on the role of each of the people,
and a fun activity is to add speech bubbles with statements above their heads
to get the conversations started. The student’s love to do this. I’ve done it with a class using the post-it
speech bubbles, and the students change out the viewpoints and statements to illustrate
their varied perspectives and points of view, and it’s a very enlightening activity. So, in quotation marks, as we’re moving
on, if you want to have any viewpoints that the different people in the
painting might have, feel free to do that. And, this is going to bring me to our fourth
strategy which is compare and connect. So, thinking about our image that you’ve been
considering, I want to talk about how I think about reading and literacy education, and I
know that many connections of text to self, text to image, and text to the world are
often used to enhance thinking about text in many ways, and comprehension,
so I want to extend that to images. So, I advocate that we think
about image to self. How do you relate to this image? What are your similar experiences? Image to image. How did this compare to another
image you are familiar with? Or, one that we provide? And, image to world. What, in this big world of ours would
you compare and connect this image to? So, once again, as you’re looking at the image
think about how you might relate to this image. Is there anything in this image that feels
familiar, or you have some background that it brings up or reminds you of? And, someone asked if I could
state again about image to image. So, image to image would be how
does this compare to another image. So, we would provide another image
that we can compare and contrast with. And, image to world, of course, is
connecting this image to things in the world that you could compare and connect with.>>One thing that I do which is an image
to self-creation, is to ask my students to either draw or tell me what they would
include in the picture of Thanksgiving. And, we actually do this before we
look at any images of Thanksgiving. Paige and I were talking about
this in relation to ourselves. Paige is from a big Italian family, and so spaghetti is going to
be on the Thanksgiving table. That is just part of their Thanksgiving
celebration which is not something that I might include, and
so there are little things, and certainly big things that are differences. There are numerous primary sources
on the Library of Congress site. The nice thing is that you have a whole
packet of a variety of resources in one place, and there are also excellent teachers
guides if you need help in using them. I go back to these again, and again
as I’m working on different projects.>>And, of course the image that we’ve been
working with, the First Thanksgiving, 1621, came from the Library of Congress, and it
has many more artifacts, primary sources, and images that you can have the students add
to their knowledge and compare and connect. So, as you think about sharing visual
representations with your students, some of the many strategies that you can use
that can help them see more deeply, like artist, like scientists is to observe and
describe, question and investigate, explore viewpoints, compare and connect. So, we are now going to – – Susan is
going to apply some of these strategies and make some more connections
with some additional content.>>The following strategy is from
the compare and connect category, and it’s called “I used to think…now I think.” I used a photograph from the Library of
Congress collections for this activity. Now, whenever we start with any
image I always ask my students to take time to observe and describe. They may do this silently, or they may write
it down, but that’s the starting point. For my students with this exercise, and
for you I have three questions I’d like you to think about, but don’t
post any answers right now. If you’ve already posted them that’s fine. Oh my gosh Patti, I cannot believe that. It’s a small world, isn’t it? You’re going to see these questions again
at the end of the activity and answer them. My students would actually write these down, and
then they’d continue to revise as we went along. I could project the image, or
I could have individual copies. I have a class that a plastic magnifying glasses
that I ordered from Organal Training Company, and I love to let the students use
those to really examine the details. Okay, so in your mind then, have this
photograph and remember we’re thinking about what time period and what happened
before, and then what was she thinking. And, so I used to think, but now you
have a little bit more information about this jailed woman. Does anything that you read
here cause you to reconsider any of those answers that you had before? Don’t tell us what your answers were, but
type yes or no if you’re reconsidering or not reconsidering any of your answers.>>I’m so glad to see that.>>I love seeing those objectives. If I had the whole class in
no’s, then I’m really upset. Alright, so we have a group of women here. We can use the observe and describe technique in
having students describe what’s going on here. What do they is going on here? What do they see happening? Not inferring, but what they see happening. And, we learn that Mrs. Reed
was actually a member of this group, The National Women’s Party. So, now I think, does anything in
the information above, in the image, cause you to reconsider any
of your previous answers? Well I’m starting to get the no’s. I’m starting to get some no’s. Okay.>>You might need more information.>>Alright. A little more information. We have a poster here. Now, would this cause you to
reconsider any of your answers? And, we have another group here. This is one where students may actually
need to describe what’s going on, and again, does anything in this photograph cause
you to reconsider any of your answers. We have another group here, and again
an opportunity to revise your thinking. Now, let me just add that you can shorten or lengthen this activity depending
on the time you have available. I wanted to actually include
several resources there so that you could see the variety of resources. There’s an excellent primary
source set of suffrage. Not all of the resources in this
exercise came from that set, but there are some excellent resources here. We have a different type of resource here. We’re viewing some substantial information. And again, an opportunity to
revise your original thinking. Our last photograph here, a great one again to
have students describe before they reconsider. And again, to think, is there anything here that
would cause me to reconsider any of my answers? So, now we’re back to the original image. So, let’s look at our three questions. See if you can kind of combine your
answers to the top three in one post. What happened before the photograph was taken? Oh, I’m sorry. In what time period do you
think that picture was taken? What happened before it was taken? And, what is she thinking? We got lots of topic going on.>>Oh yeah. Thank you [inaudible].>>I’m going to go ahead with
this as you all are talking. To think, okay. No, I think, Clarissa, I think that’s perfectly
okay to say, you know, I didn’t even know that this was a woman in the very beginning. No, that’s perfectly fine. Did you reconsider and revise any of your
answers, and if you did, to ask the students or to ask you perhaps, what one piece of
information most influenced your revision? And so, you know, to think about that
as well and have the students say, this is when I really changed my mind. And, this is when I felt that
I was on the right track. I thought that you might want to know a little
bit more about the subject of our photograph. Since we’re getting ready to come up on
an election, certainly, I, as a woman, think of what many women went through
so that I might have the right to vote. And, additionally I thought you might like
to see a picture of, what does this lady look like when she was in jail, and then as a
younger woman in the second photograph. There’s an additional thinking
routine in observing and describing in artful thinking called, “the beginning,
middle, and end” that we love to use. If this image were the beginning of
story, what’s going to happen next? If it’s the middle of a story, what
might have happened before and after? And, if it’s the end of a
story, then what was the story? And, so that’s a great technique to use as well.>>Absolutely, and you can do that with so many
images, and really have your students think about that as well, and in
terms of a timeline too. Time flies when you’re having fun. Susan and I, we want to have time for questions, but we’re going to share
some additional resources that have been useful for
us for visual literacy. Some of my favorites include; the Smithsonian
American Art Museum and the education links at that resource there are so many great
works of art and teacher resources, and fabulous questions to ask about that.>>I wanted to just mention one thing
about the Alabama Archives site. It has a remarkable collection of civil rights
resources, and I love “Read Like a Historian” because it engages students
and historical inquiry. I love anything that’s already set up for
teachers, and these all have great resources, but then they also have great teacher’s
guides and lesson plans already set up. Of course, we love the Library of
Congress, that’s why we’re all here. National Archives and Records also
has a wonderful education site, as does the Smithsonian.>>There are so many image resources. I can sit all day and look at
the Life Magazine resource. I really encourage you to take a look at that. There are images, clip art,
pictures, and image search galleries, and Google has wonderful images as well. Of course, the Library of Congress Fine Prints. This “Opinionated Art” [inaudible] Fine
Art Print collection, is a fabulous article that I wanted to make note of, and I really
encourage our listeners to read this as well. This is a list of additional resources for
primary sources that Susan really likes too. I think you provided this for us Susan.>>Yes. These are sources that I use with my
students in my Social Studies Methods course to find primary sources, not necessarily
images, but other types of primary resources.>>I love that Karen mentioned there’s even
a Head Start version of “Teacher in America.” I have found that Karen, and that if fabulous. One of my areas of expertise is early childhood,
and I encourage everyone to look that up as well if that’s an area you work in. These are just some more visual
literacy learner activities. Just some starters on getting students to
describe, and to observe, and to connect, and interpret, and all of
the things we talked about. Things like writing a conversation
between characters, imagining that an artist show has just opened. This will give you some more ideas for implementing these strategies
that we’ve been sharing today.>>I always love asking students what they
smell, or hear when they look at an image, and at first, they look at me like I’m
crazy, and then they immediately start in, and it’s amazing the things
that they come up with.>>Lisa and Alissa have asked
about a handout page. I believe all of this will be available to us
after this conference, but feel free to email us and I don’t mind sending
all the resources at all.>>Absolutely. We would love to.>>And, let us know that what
you’re doing that’s related to visual literacy, and sharing these ideas. Also, any additional resources that you
used that has enhanced your teaching, we would love to hear from you too.>>Thank you so much for joining us today. I wish we could have seen you in person. It was, again, so fun to see so many
people from so many different places.

local_offerevent_note October 11, 2019

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