Comprehending Literary Passages – 1


we will continue with our reading passages
and look at this first passage its about the great theatre actress sarah bernhardt as bernhardts
amazing career brings out the celebrity narrative goes a long way back by her life and her art
she radically inflect inflected its form and handed it on for later great actresses to
inhabit and alter it alter in their turn she provides as history always does a test of
authenticity in her heirs she was an undoubted genius at the job she thereby returns us to
the necessary antique distinction between fame and renown to be famous is to be well
known easily recognised on screen or in the street to be renowned is to be honoured for
solid ungainsayable achievement and achievement what is more of a morally admirable kind
famousness let us say is to be publicly recognisable although perhaps known for no great accomplishment
famous for being famous is the cliche but its not much help fame starts from something
or other but what it is may not add up to much renown is far more resonant and ample
it has a slightly old fashioned ring to it but is none the worse for that renown is well
merited and this the more so since we have had since eighteen hundred or so such unrivalled
amounts of information about famous people go back to the sixteenth century and the number
of the famous was tiny her citizens knew who elizabeth the first was but very few knew
of the hardworking drudge and playwright will shakespeare renown now takes in acclaim sheer
volume of talent and accomplishment and probably of personality
lets look at the questions here explain the distinction between fame and renown what does
ah why does the author say that shakespeare wasnt as well known as the queen and what
did bernhardts career do for later actresses take some time go back to the passage and
go through it and answer the questions now fame and renown as ah you would have understand
fame could just refer to the quality of being well known renown is ah reserve for those
with genuine accomplishments and signifies merit more than near visibility ok thats the
answer ah um the question between who is more famous shakespeare of the queen is refer to
the first elizabeth elizabeth the first the author says that the in shakespeare time not
much information was circulated as there were not many sources of media so only renown and
really important people like the queen where recognised by the public and ah about the
question on bernhardts career bernhardts career provided an example of how celebrity and fame
could be performed and served as a marker of authenticity to later actresses as well
she was not only a great actress but also intelligently crafted her celebrity persona
off stage i will give you a list of words please look up the meanings resonant drudge
ungainsayable and cliche so resonant is a verb it evokes images memories and emotions
the word resonant with so many different meanings right so its an image is something that evokes
image meanings emotions memories drudge is noun a person made to work or to do hard minimal
or dull work she was little more than a drudge ah around the house ungainsayable adjective
it is undeniable irrefutable the front por[ge]- and the door way of a house convey ungainsayable
class signals so how you the front of the house says a lot
cliche is a noun its a phrase or opinion that is overused and a lack of original thought
famous for being famous is a cliche that old cliche that ah um you know a bird in hand
is where to in the its a proverb but of course ah you know so there are so many ah own out
cliches and phrases the list is truly inexhaustible cliches something that is over used and ah
it shows that you know you dont have anything original by way of thought or language
lets move on to the second passage no doubt a public figure even a figurehead must have
a character but as a celebrity enacts less his or her special characteristics than carries
off or embodies certain key or timely public values the ready example is nelson mandela
he was globally known to have borne up under twenty five years imprisonment on robben island
with amazing courage resilience even meekness he left prison in serenity smiling all the
way he forgave his enemies and thereby made reconciliation and justice imaginable he stood
for the best the only values which would hold his society away from civil war in an inadequate
economist and an in ineffective policy maker he became as figureheads must a national allegory
calm gregarious jolly accessible rock steady the moral point about figureheads is made
when we grasp that they may also personify fearful even horrible public values if the
times are ripe for them hitler at his peak was such a figurehead an allegory of stern
removed and ruthless authority uniformed expressionless commanding softening only and indicatively
when bending down to ruffle childrens heads the people gazed and raptly endorsed this
special embodiment of what they believed to be their best national identity indisputably
forceful in his prime compelling in his achievements the monster dictator serves to remind us how
vague a concept celebrity is and how important it is to the upholding of civic culture that
we keep alive a more vigorous and discriminating moral vocabulary than is spoken on chat radio
here are your questions despite being an inadequate economist and policy maker why was mandelas
celebrity monumental explain the fascination hitler had and third one what do you think
the authors understanding of celebrity persona is from this particular passage take some
time and solve the answers all right the mandelas public image he as a man who fought for justice
and aspires values for offer peace and courage belide is ineffectual administration his public
identity as a national leader was so strong that nothing else matter in popular opinion
ah um the hitler fascination he was more ah national
allegory from a person people found is air of command and ruthlessness compelling in
a figure of authority and wanted him to represent the nation and the third question the third
question about authors are understanding of celebrity persona the author argues that celebrity
is often removed from the actual qualities of a person and some representation stand
in for the whole or these representations are glon[um]- out of proportion overall celebrity
itself is a vegue formula and needs to be studied more
lets look at the third passage one morning in march eighteen twelve george gordon lord
byron famously woke up to find himself famous the first edition of five hundred copies of
the first two cantos of childe harolds pilgrimage had sold out in just three days the ensuing
years would witness a frenzy of attention and adulation for the handsome young member
of the house of lords he was lionised in londons high society celebrated across europe and
inundated by admiring letters from women eager to meet him byromania as it came to be called
was one of the first examples of fan driven literary celebrity and the adjective byronic
quickly became shorthand for the personal and literary style of its namesake
it was an inaugural moment in the history of literary celebrity writers had striven
for and meditated upon fame for centuries prior to byrons apotheosis but it was only
during the romantic era that literary celebrity began to take its modern form prior to the
rise of print capitalism and mass literacy writers typically addressed small audiences
with whom they were personally acquainted and it was not expected that they earn any
money directly from their published texts literary figures were either patronized by
the aristocracy or were themselves members of that aristocracy and their ideas of fame
were based in established traditions of judeo christian piety and classical honor that tended
to emphasize posthumous renown lets go on to read the questions now so what
was byroman it describe byromania why was byrons fame a product of the romantic age
and how were authors regarded before but before the authors ah the question is before byron
so byromania refers to the sensation that lord byron created through his persona and
literary endeavours byromania is the first known example of print fuel literary celebrity
now ah coming to the next question why was ah byrons fame a product of the romantic age
the romantic age was also the age of print capitalism and more and more people were reading
as education levels rows this is why byromania is so particularly a product of its times
and what was happening before byron byron ah authors were usually patronized by the
aristocracy our nobels themselves and their ideas of fame was based on judeo christian
ideal or ideas that idealised a classical past instead of the present
let me give you a list of words for developing vocabulary adulation posthumous apotheosis
and lionised all these words you have already seen find out the meanings take five minutes
so ah adulation is a noun it means excessive admiration operates many a time we say in
india ah celebrities ah face a lot of adulation or ah are the are at the receiving end of
adulation so he found it difficult to cope with the adulation of the fans posthumous
is adjective after someone death so posthumous award or reward ok conferring
ah an oscar posthumously ah apotheosis is a noun if the highest point in the ah in the
ah development of something a culmination or climax of something so his appearance is
hamlet was the apotheosis of his careerer lionised is verb when you lionised someone
you elevate that person give a lot of attention and importance and significance modern ah
sports man are lionised and celebrated all over
so forth passage now lets look at that the romantics were the first artists to champion
their own sensibilities in response to the destabilizing forces of the literary marketplace
and the masculine heroic figure they forged would have avatars across europe and increasingly
the world as the formulation of the romantic hero coincided with and to a certain degree
depended on colonial expansion and its attendant fantasies of adventure and escape the romantic
hero additionally inaugurated what i am calling the autobiographical mandate the requirement
that the protagonist align with the writer such that the literary celebrity becomes an
amalgam of character narrator and author lord byron was childe harolde as goethe was
werther as chateaubriand was renee these authors channelled their post aristocratic angst into
an image of masculine melancholy that would have enormous appeal to a rapidly expanding
and predominantly female middle class readership so now questions why does the author bring
up colonial expansion what is the autobiographical mandate and why does the author bring up a
predominantly female middle class audience whats the reference to that to answer the
first question why does the author bring up colonial expansion because of the concept
of the romantic hero depended on colonial ideas of adventure and conquest these qualities
made the romantic hero dashing and appealing what is the autobiographical mandate that
the author is talking about it is the modern requirement that the literary protagonist
imitates the author in real life through its sentiments opinions and behaviours
so he gives examples right the goethe is werther that byron is childe harolde the author argues
the third to answer the third question that why does the author bring up ah predominantly
female middle class audience so author according to the author the particular ah formulation
of romantic masculinity has special appeal amongst the female middle class reading public
and hence the reference to female readers as usual i will give you a list of difficult
words that is your vocabulary check amalgam amalgam mandate a attendant and forge f o
r g e amalgam mandate attendant and forge find out the meanings
now amalgam is a noun its a mixture or bland a curious amalgam of the traditional and the
modern that could be one example mandate is a noun again its an official order or commission
to do something a mandate to see the release of political prisoners a mandate that all
students must attend the assembly tomorrow attendant is ah adjective which is occurring
with ah hm or as a result of something forge is a verb to create something strong or enduring
the two women forged a close bound now lets move on to the fifth passage under
the post world war ah the second world war postmodern dispensation the restricted and
general fields of cultural production begin both to collapse into each other and to segment
into semi autonomous subfields serving specific taste communities during this era two institutions
come of age as gatekeepers for literary celebrity the prize industry and the creative writing
program the proliferating prize industry provides literary consecration across an ever expanding
variety of platforms from the international to the national to the generic continuously
catapulting authors into celebrity overlapping at a number of key points with the system
of literary prizes is the creative writing program which has emerged as a new form of
patronage enabling a semiautonomous star system based in the academic circulation of personality
and prestige in this contemporary cultural field celebrity is broadly accepted as an
inevitable component of literary success and authors are accustomed to and frequently very
talented at the wide variety of practices from readings and interviews to blogs and
tweets that have emerged to disseminate it lets look at the questions what were the factors
that decided literary fame post war we are talking about the second world war and explain
how contemporary authors cement literary success now the factors that decided that literary
fame post war the answer should be two institutions rows ah s key factors of literacy married
determining ah literacy married the prices industry and the creative writing programs
the first provided an authoritative opinions across national boundaries while the second
enable the domination of academia in the literary field and then ah about ah the contemporary
authors and how the cement literary success fame through the cement their ah success and
fame through public appearance use of social media platforms like the blog and twitter
and literary competence is usually always followed by some form of celebrity in todays
world lets look at the difficult words here proliferation
please take them down gatekeepers dispensation and generic proliferation gatekeepers dispen[sation]-dispensation
and generic so proliferation is a noun it means rapid increase in the number or amount
of something you often say proliferation of ah um iit related books in the market ok je
exam clear the je exam and proliferation of such kinds of books the adjective would be
prolific he is a prolific writer gatekeepers is a noun a person or thing that controls
access to something right ah um dispensation is also a noun ah um which is ah assumption
from a rule or usual requirement generic is something which is characteristics ah um or
ah relating to ah a group of person or thing people or thing
lets look at the last passage for today the logic of negation that determined avant garde
aesthetic value also meant that failure in the general field of cultural production became
equated with success in the restricted field once again baudel baudelaire is representative
as his early death in obscurity comes to represent the tragic fate of unrecognized genius the
melodrama of mainstream rejection becomes de rigueur during this era epitomized by the
starving artist whose work is only recognized after ah um a usually early and impecunious
demise however the artists stark opposition to the mainstream marketplace is in reality
a pose the logic is temporal and dictates that failure precede success the standard
career arc becomes one in which an artist is initially accepted by a cultural coterie
but rejected by the mainstream after this after which this very rejection becomes the
basis for a later critical canonization consecrated by the apprenticeship in obscurity the passage
from outlaw to classic comes to epitomize the temporal logic of the avant garde and
to represent a template upon which a successful modernist career would be mapped
lets look at the questions now so the question is outline the argument or authors argument
in the passage between which is given in four to eight lines and you have five minutes go
through the passages very carefully the answer could be a possible answer is that the author
suggest that the career and success of modernist artist like baudelaire was predicated upon
rejection by the mainstream reader in fact the avant garde writer was usually only lorded
by small elide community and this strophe of an indulgent but brilliant artist who is
rejected by popular opinion served many authors like baudelaire the author argues that the
initial rejection was performed and was actually ah necessary act for incoming success and
this was a script many modernist career copied and some of the difficult words here avant
garde a v a n t g a r d e is a french word but very common so common that it has become
a part of the english language and pose p o s e coterie c o t e r i e and de rigueur
de rigueur is again a french word so avant garde is new and experimental you
often use it in terms of avant garde cinema avant garde music avant garde theatre pose
pose is to behave in a certain way to impress others some people like to ah practice adventure
pose they were not be really into it by they like to pose coterie is a small group of people
we shared interest or trace and always support each other they are exclusive to other people
or coterie of friends and advises de rigueur adjective its an adjective which is required
by etticate or current fashion you know if de rigueur to ah um ah for a students to were
genes today so it is part of current fashion it was de rigueur for um ah rog band or rock
musicians to grow their hair long thats the seventies see the eighty seen here so
thank you very much and we will meet for our next class

local_offerevent_note September 20, 2019

account_box Matthew Anderson


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