Tools for writing up literature reviews & methodology

Tools for writing up literature reviews & methodology


Welcome back to the MOOC course on research
writing. My name is Aradhna Malika, and I am helping
you with this course. And ah in the previous ah class we talked
about ah organizing your section on methodology. Now we will talk about some tools and techniques
for ah writing down your literature review and methodology sections. So, let us see what we have here for you , tools
for writing up literature reviews in methodology ah .
The first thing we need to know is definitions, how do you define ah um different things and
how do you write up definitions. And definitions are brief statements which
specify the basic qualities of their subject . Now, where is 2 types of definitions here
are the informal definitions and the formal definitions. Informal definitions offer the reader only
what here she needs to know, and does not impede the narrative. They are usually one-line interpretation of
a concept . Formal definitions on the other hand identify ah their subject within a larger
group, and differentiated from others in that group .
Descriptions on the other hand are detailed definitions. Descriptions ah help you elaborate what your
audience needs to know about the subject. The way whatever you are talking about works
internally, what does it produce, what it looks like etcetera. So, descriptions are detailed definitions,
they are they have more detail than a definition, they talk not only about the concept, but
it is use it is ah ah you know, it is it show it works um ah it is outcome it is ah you
know the physical features etcetera . Various types of descriptions , ah function
description discusses a machine or tool in terms of the work, it performs now this is
helpful. When you write up your methods section or
when you are describing your sample, descriptions definition and descriptions will be useful
when you are writing up details of the sample. You have selected the method you have or the
method you are going to use and the tools that you are going to use within that method
. Physical description discusses an object in terms of it is composition and or appearance. So, what does it look like? What it is composed of etcetera functional
description talks about what something does . Assembly description talks about the various
parts of the ah the the tool that you are going to use. A simple assembly description is little more
than a listing of parts in the order ah in which they are to be attached to the whole. They may be listed according to the sequence
of the assembly or they may be identified merely by serial numbers. So, we are talking about how different parts
fit in the serial number, and and how they are connected to each other .
Comparison descriptions are ah ah you know their descriptions about 2 ah entities that
can be compared, and they allow the reader to cross reference easily . Process descriptions
are recounting of the stages of any action they are different from assembly descriptions
or functional descriptions. A functional description discusses a machine
or tools in terms of ah or tool in terms of the work it performs. So, in terms of the output process talks about
how . So, how that ah activity is done and it is a recounting a different description
of the different stages of any action . Description of a natural process might appear
in a scientific article in microbiology part of a manual for wine makers etcetera. So, different natural processes ah ah you
know so, ah are described here. Description of a procedure is directed at
someone who will require an overall understanding of the process. And who may or may not perform the work, in
this sense it differs from a set of instructions ah procedure it is ah ah process description
is a recounting of this stages. A procedure is a detailed ah ah description
of that process ok. How do you compose descriptions ?
Use the descriptions to make an outline then compose a first draft. Assume that your reader is unfamiliar with
the subject and help your reader by using consistent and predictable patterning. Then compose subsequent draft with attention
to transitions between the sections making sure you do not lose the reader. So, you use you talk about different parts
of whatever you are talking about make sure they are connected together. Make sure they are connected well , and you
do not ah ah and then you compose the first draft then you revise it and make sure that
one-part flows into another instructions . The significance of instructions are ah ah
instructions help you understand, how a process needs to be completed ah. Instructions tell you about instructions are
very important when you write up methods. And when you talk about the method section,
then instructions help you under excuse me understand which what to be what what has
been done, and how it has been and ah how somebody else who would do or who would try
to replicate your study, do whatever you are doing , or it advices the reader as to how
a process has been followed . Now, poorly written instructions always come
back to bite the inventor and the inventors employer. For example, I will tell you ah few years
back in our ah department, we had a video camera that used to record ah ah different
kinds of things you know in in especially in the communication classes, we would ah
record things ah. So, ah at one point of time, I wanted to transfer
those recordings to ah the computer. And I went through the whole instruction manual. Now, I will not twll you which company made
this. And this was sometime back about ah 5 or 6
years back we were using a video camera. And I went through the instruction manual,
and the instruction manual talked about every little part there was in that video camera,
but it did not talk about how the files could be transferred to the computer. So, they they imagine that we would know how
to do that . And they did not talk about how those files could be played on the computer. The files could be transferred again I found
out by written try, they assumed that the person using that video camera would know,
how to transfer the files to the computer . And ah even though they had explained, which
part went in where and what the cable looked like and you know how to charge the video
camera. That particular piece of instruction was missing. They also did not tell us how to play those
files because the files were recorded in a format that is different from the format we
normally use for video recording. So, that I felt was such a big flaw in those
instructions. So, similarly we we assume that the reader
of our instructions ah ah you know ah knows, what they what we are talking about, many
times we do not I had to like ah you know take the model number of the camera I had
to go online and had to search for how the camera could be used and how a specific format
of the files could be converted into a format that could be played through the ah commonly
available video players. So, ah you know, but that was something I
found online by going through a search engine. But this was they should have been listed
in instructions to make it easier for the user of the camera because; obviously, you
can not store everything on the camera. Similarly, when we do something you know when
we were write about a method that we have used we assume that the reader will know what
to do, and many times the readers do not and that then again comes back to bite the reader
your paper may not get published. Because of these missing parts or you may
get reviews your paper the publication could be delayed ah you know you may have trouble
convincing your reviews about the authenticity or the thoroughness of your work. So, various types of instructions. There are process oriented instructions, ah
there are manuals, we have ah different ah manuals we have educational instructions,
we have instructions and international audiences ah this is specifically, important in the
context of our work reaching out to a large number of people. Whenever we write down the instructions whenever
we write papers for publications when we talk about different methods that we have used. People in other countries may have trouble
understanding what we are talking about unless we use standard terminology and unless we
write down in detail what we ahve done . So, that again will help for example, when we
write ah about ah ah say when we are talking about currency for example. In India we use ah currencies called lakhs
and crores. Now people in southern Asia would understand. People in srilanka people in Pakistan people
in Bangladesh people in ah ah say Nepal would understand what the word lakhs and crores
means. But unless we write it you know we could write
it in brackets and we could say one lakh is equal to 100 thousand. So, you know that is something that we could
mention and that will help international audiences relate to it. Similarly, we just talk about millions and
billions in excuse me, when we are writing a paper about say currency, and we only talk
about millions and billions and we talk about ah big hours and the canals, and you know
these are measures of of real estate. So, excuse me of land . So, you know unless
we use both terminologies put one end the bracket and the other outside the brackets,
it will become difficult for people to relate to it. So, we must write down these instructions
in clear terms ok. And in India for example, ah when we talking
about a switches excuse me. So, we say switch on something and ah so,
or the or ah press the switch down. So, whereas, ah or turn the tap left and in
other countries you know turning something clockwise or anti clockwise could be ah differently
interpreted . So, ah that is something ah that we must take care of . Ah instruction
and new communication technologies, when we are talking about instructions it is always
a good idea to have a ah ah an online ah support for the instructions that we are talking about
specially when we are dealing with machines ah with the part number the model number of
the machine should be mentioned clearly in the instructions that we are writing down
for ah especially for research in the engineering sciences or in the pure sciences where we
are using standard machines. So, if the model number and the make and the
the generic name of the machine or ah um ah whatever you are using is mentioned instead
of the the the branch name, then then it will really help, because then ah you know using
different communication technologies the the the message can be transmitted appropriately. And ah the instructions again ah ah ah the
instructions that we write down should ah you know they they ah ah I am sorry can you
please pause here portion , instruction and new communication technologies definite description
. Please can not take away ok restart. So, instructions and new communication technologies
we must keep the new types of communication technology in my when we are talking about
instructions . Ah different expert systems again, you know how we write up instructions
for different expert systems, ah again ah needs to be it looked at . Ah interactive
video and virtual reality, and how these instructions are communicated, how they cater to the interactive
video and virtual reality must also be taken into account ok. And remember note and caution now, these are
3 terms that we use loosely. When we talk about remember, we are talking
about reiterating a point. So, things that we may have mentioned in the
instructions, but we really want people to to remember again are to be mentioned in the
note saying remember. Note, something that we may have missed out
in the instructions, or something that we want to emphasize in the instructions that
may not have come out so well that can be written as a note. Things that may have been missed out that
we may have assumed can be further mentioned in the section on note. Caution is a section that needs to be treated
with a lot of caution. Caution means that we are warning users to
use ah ah particular machine or or device appropriately. So, when we are writing up about our research
we say ok, word of caution, please do not turn off the machine when this process is
running caution. Please turn off the machine when you leave
the room. Caution, please do not live your blood samples
unattended. Caution, please use gloves while handling
a body fluids that you are going to be testing. So, those are all to be used in caution um. Remember ah if you do not use gloves while
handling body fluids, you could be susceptible to infection um. So, that is how caution and remember are different,
note; using gloves will protect your hands. So, ah um things that we assume ah can be
put in this section. And that is how we write up these instructions
that is all we have time for in this lecture. We will continue with some more discussion
on research writing in the next class. Thank you very much for listening .

local_offerevent_note October 11, 2019

account_box Matthew Anderson


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