Visual arts | Wikipedia audio article

The visual arts are art forms such as painting,
drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts,
and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as performing
arts, conceptual art, textile arts also involve aspects of visual arts as well as arts of
other types. Also included within the visual arts are the
applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and
decorative art.Current usage of the term “visual arts” includes fine art as well as the applied
or decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain
and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term ‘artist’ had for some centuries often
been restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or
printmaking) and not the decorative arts, craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists
of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the
fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner
of the arts. The increasing tendency to privilege painting,
and to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as
well as East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen as
relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, and the furthest removed from
manual labour – in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were those of “scholar-painting”,
at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected
similar attitudes.==Education and training==Training in the visual arts has generally
been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase
the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, and today most
of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject
in most education systems.==Drawing==Drawing is a means of making an image, using
any of a wide variety of tools and techniques. It generally involves making marks on a surface
by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such
as graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels,
and markers. Digital tools that simulate the effects of
these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line
drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred
to as a draftsman or draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to
Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira
in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus,
often depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases, initially geometric,
later developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC.With paper
becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro
Botticelli, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as
an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture.==Painting==Painting taken literally is the practice of
applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a
surface (support) such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it
means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic
considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Painting is also used to express spiritual
motifs and ideas; sites of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological
figures on pottery to The Sistine Chapel to the human body itself.===Origins and early history===Like drawing, painting has its documented
origins in caves and on rock faces. The finest examples, believed by some to be
32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown, yellow and black,
the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle, horses and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in
the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, Nefertari,
his queen, is depicted being led by Isis. The Greeks contributed to painting but much
of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations
are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of
Issus at Pompeii, which was probably based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine
art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting.===The Renaissance===Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced
by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was
from Italy’s renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo
da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period
in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space. Painters in northern Europe too were influenced
by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel
the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most
successful painters of the times. They used the glazing technique with oils
to achieve depth and luminosity.===Dutch masters===The 17th century witnessed the emergence of
the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt who was especially remembered for
his portraits and Bible scenes, and Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch
life.===Baroque===The Baroque started after the Renaissance,
from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio,
who made heavy use of tenebrism. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who
studied in Italy, worked for local churches in Antwerp and also painted a series for Marie
de’ Medici. Annibale Carracci took influences from the
Sistine Chapel and created the genre of illusionistic ceiling painting. Much of the development that happened in the
Baroque was because of the Protestant Reformation and the resulting Counter Reformation. Much of what defines the Baroque is dramatic
lighting and overall visuals.===Impressionism===Impressionism began in France in the 19th
century with a loose association of artists including Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
and Paul Cézanne who brought a new freely brushed style to painting, often choosing
to paint realistic scenes of modern life outside rather than in the studio. This was achieved through a new expression
of aesthetic features demonstrated by brush strokes and the impression of reality. They achieved intense colour vibration by
using pure, unmixed colours and short brush strokes. The movement influenced art as a dynamic,
moving through time and adjusting to new found techniques and perception of art. Attention to detail became less of a priority
in achieving, whilst exploring a biased view of landscapes and nature to the artists eye.===Post-impressionism===Towards the end of the 19th century, several
young painters took impressionism a stage further, using geometric forms and unnatural
colour to depict emotions while striving for deeper symbolism. Of particular note are Paul Gauguin, who was
strongly influenced by Asian, African and Japanese art, Vincent van Gogh, a Dutchman
who moved to France where he drew on the strong sunlight of the south, and Toulouse-Lautrec,
remembered for his vivid paintings of night life in the Paris district of Montmartre.===Symbolism, expressionism and cubism===Edvard Munch, a Norwegian artist, developed
his symbolistic approach at the end of the 19th century, inspired by the French impressionist
Manet. The Scream (1893), his most famous work, is
widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man. Partly as a result of Munch’s influence, the
German expressionist movement originated in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century
as artists such as Ernst Kirschner and Erich Heckel began to distort reality for an emotional
effect. In parallel, the style known as cubism developed
in France as artists focused on the volume and space of sharp structures within a composition. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were the
leading proponents of the movement. Objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled
in an abstracted form. By the 1920s, the style had developed into
surrealism with Dali and Magritte.==Printmaking==Printmaking is creating, for artistic purposes,
an image on a matrix that is then transferred to a two-dimensional (flat) surface by means
of ink (or another form of pigmentation). Except in the case of a monotype, the same
matrix can be used to produce many examples of the print. Historically, the major techniques (also called
media) involved are woodcut, line engraving, etching, lithography, and screenprinting (serigraphy,
silkscreening) but there are many others, including modern digital techniques. Normally, the print is printed on paper, but
other mediums range from cloth and vellum to more modern materials. Major printmaking traditions include that
of Japan (ukiyo-e).===European history===Prints in the Western tradition produced before
about 1830 are known as old master prints. In Europe, from around 1400 AD woodcut, was
used for master prints on paper by using printing techniques developed in the Byzantine and
Islamic worlds. Michael Wolgemut improved German woodcut from
about 1475, and Erhard Reuwich, a Dutchman, was the first to use cross-hatching. At the end of the century Albrecht Dürer
brought the Western woodcut to a stage that has never been surpassed, increasing the status
of the single-leaf woodcut.===Chinese origin and practice===In China, the art of printmaking developed
some 1,100 years ago as illustrations alongside text cut in woodblocks for printing on paper. Initially images were mainly religious but
in the Song Dynasty, artists began to cut landscapes. During the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1616–1911)
dynasties, the technique was perfected for both religious and artistic engravings.===Development In Japan 1603–1867===Woodblock printing in Japan (Japanese: 木版画,
moku hanga) is a technique best known for its use in the ukiyo-e artistic genre; however,
it was also used very widely for printing books in the same period. Woodblock printing had been used in China
for centuries to print books, long before the advent of movable type, but was only widely
adopted in Japan surprisingly late, during the Edo period (1603–1867). Although similar to woodcut in western printmaking
in some regards, moku hanga differs greatly in that water-based inks are used (as opposed
to western woodcut, which uses oil-based inks), allowing for a wide range of vivid color,
glazes and color transparency.==Photography==Photography is the process of making pictures
by means of the action of light. The light patterns reflected or emitted from
objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure. The process is done through mechanical shutters
or electronically timed exposure of photons into chemical processing or digitizing devices
known as cameras. The word comes from the Greek words φως
phos (“light”), and γραφις graphis (“stylus”, “paintbrush”) or γραφη graphê, together
meaning “drawing with light” or “representation by means of lines” or “drawing.” Traditionally, the product of photography
has been called a photograph. The term photo is an abbreviation; many people
also call them pictures. In digital photography, the term image has
begun to replace photograph. (The term image is traditional in geometric
optics.)==Architecture==Architecture is the process and the product
of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form
of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified
with their surviving architectural achievements. The earliest surviving written work on the
subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early
1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should
satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas, commonly known by the
original translation – firmness, commodity and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up
robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the
purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing.Building
first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and
means (available building materials and attendant skills). As human cultures developed and knowledge
began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft, and
“architecture” is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of
that craft.==Filmmaking==Filmmaking is the process of making a motion-picture,
from an initial conception and research, through scriptwriting, shooting and recording, animation
or other special effects, editing, sound and music work and finally distribution to an
audience; it refers broadly to the creation of all types of films, embracing documentary,
strains of theatre and literature in film, and poetic or experimental practices, and
is often used to refer to video-based processes as well==
Computer art==Visual artists are no longer limited to traditional
art media. Computers have been used as an ever more common
tool in the visual arts since the 1960s. Uses include the capturing or creating of
images and forms, the editing of those images and forms (including exploring multiple compositions)
and the final rendering or printing (including 3D printing). Computer art is any in which computers played
a role in production or display. Such art can be an image, sound, animation,
video, CD-ROM, DVD, video game, website, algorithm, performance or gallery installation. Many traditional disciplines are now integrating
digital technologies and, as a result, the lines between traditional works of art and
new media works created using computers have been blurred. For instance, an artist may combine traditional
painting with algorithmic art and other digital techniques. As a result, defining computer art by its
end product can be difficult. Nevertheless, this type of art is beginning
to appear in art museum exhibits, though it has yet to prove its legitimacy as a form
unto itself and this technology is widely seen in contemporary art more as a tool rather
than a form as with painting. Computer usage has blurred the distinctions
between illustrators, photographers, photo editors, 3-D modelers, and handicraft artists. Sophisticated rendering and editing software
has led to multi-skilled image developers. Photographers may become digital artists. Illustrators may become animators. Handicraft may be computer-aided or use computer-generated
imagery as a template. Computer clip art usage has also made the
clear distinction between visual arts and page layout less obvious due to the easy access
and editing of clip art in the process of paginating a document, especially to the unskilled
observer.==Plastic arts==Plastic arts is a term for art forms that
involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture
or ceramics. The term has also been applied to all the
visual (non-literary, non-musical) arts.Materials that can be carved or shaped, such as stone
or wood, concrete or steel, have also been included in the narrower definition, since,
with appropriate tools, such materials are also capable of modulation. This use of the term “plastic” in the arts
should not be confused with Piet Mondrian’s use, nor with the movement he termed, in French
and English, “Neoplasticism.”===Sculpture===Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created
by shaping or combining hard or plastic material, sound, or text and or light, commonly stone
(either rock or marble), clay, metal, glass, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by finding
or carving; others are assembled, built together and fired, welded, molded, or cast. Sculptures are often painted. A person who creates sculptures is called
a sculptor. Because sculpture involves the use of materials
that can be moulded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting
may be referred to as a sculpture garden. Sculptors do not always make sculptures by
hand. With increasing technology in the 20th century
and the popularity of conceptual art over technical mastery, more sculptors turned to
art fabricators to produce their artworks. With fabrication, the artist creates a design
and pays a fabricator to produce it. This allows sculptors to create larger and
more complex sculptures out of material like cement, metal and plastic, that they would
not be able to create by hand. Sculptures can also be made with 3-d printing
technology.==Copyright definition of visual art (US)
==In the United States, the law protecting the
copyright over a piece of visual art gives a more restrictive definition of “visual art”. A “work of visual art” is —
(1) a painting, drawing, print or sculpture, existing in a single copy, in a limited edition
of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author, or,
in the case of a sculpture, in multiple cast, carved, or fabricated sculptures of 200 or
fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying
mark of the author; or (2) a still photographic image produced for
exhibition purposes only, existing in a single copy that is signed by the author, or in a
limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the
author. A work of visual art does not include —
(A)(i) any poster, map, globe, chart, technical drawing, diagram, model, applied art, motion
picture or other audiovisual work, book, magazine, newspaper, periodical, data base, electronic
information service, electronic publication, or similar publication;
(ii) any merchandising item or advertising, promotional, descriptive, covering, or packaging
material or container; (iii) any portion or part of any item described
in clause (i) or (ii); (B) any work made for hire; or
(C) any work not subject to copyright protection under this title.==See also

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